Download the PDF of Somali History from 1960 to 1991 and Learn More About This Fascinating Country
Taariikhda Soomaaliya 1960 Ilaa 1991 Pdf Download: A Book Review
If you are interested in learning more about the history of Somalia from 1960 to 1991, you might want to download the PDF of a book written by Dr. Maxamed-Rashiid Sheekh Xasan, a Somali scholar who specializes in African and Asian studies. The book, titled Religion, Clan and State in Somalia: From the Colonial Era to the Warlord Period (1960-1991), was published by the School of African and Oriental Studies at the University of London in 2017.
Taariikhda Soomaaliya 1960 Ilaa 1991 Pdf Download
In this book, Dr. Xasan examines how religion, clan and state interacted and influenced each other in the Somali history during the period of 1960 to 1991. He analyzes the political, social and economic factors that shaped the Somali nation-state and its collapse into civil war. He also explores the role of external actors, such as Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti and the United States, in the Somali affairs.
The book is based on extensive research and interviews with Somali elders, politicians, intellectuals and activists. It offers a comprehensive and balanced perspective on the complex and controversial issues that have affected Somalia for decades. It also provides valuable insights and lessons for the current and future generations of Somalis who are striving to rebuild their country.
The book is available for download as a PDF file from various online sources . You can also purchase a hard copy from Amazon or other bookstores. The book is written in English and has 320 pages. It is suitable for anyone who wants to gain a deeper understanding of the Somali history and culture.
The Main Events of Somali History from 1960 to 1991
The period of 1960 to 1991 was marked by several important events that shaped the destiny of Somalia and its people. Here are some of the main ones:
1960: Somalia becomes independent by uniting former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. The first president is Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, who is elected by a parliament composed of representatives from different clans. Somalia adopts a constitution based on democracy, nationalism and Islam .
1963: Somalia joins the Organization of African Unity (OAU), now known as the African Union (AU). Somalia also establishes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and China, seeking their support for its claim over the Ogaden region, which is inhabited by ethnic Somalis but controlled by Ethiopia .
1967: Abdirashid Ali Shermarke becomes the second president of Somalia after defeating Daar in a peaceful election. He tries to improve relations with Ethiopia and Kenya, which also have Somali-inhabited regions. He also initiates economic and social reforms .
1969: Shermarke is assassinated by one of his bodyguards. A military coup led by Mohamed Siad Barre takes over the government and abolishes the constitution, the parliament and the political parties. Barre declares Somalia a socialist state and aligns with the Soviet bloc .
1974: A severe drought affects Somalia, causing famine and displacement of millions of people. Barre launches a campaign to eradicate clanism and promote scientific socialism. He also creates a secret police force called the National Security Service (NSS) to suppress dissent and opposition .
1977: Somalia invades Ethiopia to capture the Ogaden region, with the support of Cuba and the Soviet Union. However, Ethiopia receives military assistance from other socialist countries, such as Cuba, Yemen and East Germany. The war ends in 1978 with a decisive defeat for Somalia, which loses most of its territory and equipment .
1981: The Somali National Movement (SNM), a rebel group based in northern Somalia (former British Somaliland), launches an armed struggle against Barre's regime, demanding autonomy or independence for their region. The SNM is mainly composed of members from the Isaaq clan .
1988: Barre signs a peace agreement with Ethiopia's leader Mengistu Haile Mariam, recognizing Ethiopia's sovereignty over the Ogaden region. This angers many Somalis who see it as a betrayal of their national aspirations. Barre also agrees to stop supporting other rebel groups fighting against Ethiopia, such as the Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF) and the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) .
1990: Several other rebel groups emerge in different parts of Somalia, challenging Barre's rule. They include the United Somali Congress (USC), led by Mohamed Farah Aideed and Ali Mahdi Mohamed; the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), led by Ahmed Omar Jess; and the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), led by Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed. They form an alliance called the Somali National Alliance (SNA) and coordinate their attacks against Barre's forces .
1991: Barre is ousted from power by a coalition of rebel forces led by the USC. He flees to his clan stronghold in Gedo region, where he continues to fight until his death in 1995. The USC declares Ali Mahdi Mohamed as the interim president of Somalia, but Aideed rejects this and claims the presidency for himself. This sparks a violent power struggle between the two factions of the USC, which escalates into a full-scale civil war that engulfs the whole country .
The Secession of Somaliland and the Autonomy of Puntland
Another consequence of the collapse of the Somali state in 1991 was the emergence of two self-governing regions in northern Somalia: Somaliland and Puntland. These regions have different political and legal statuses, and different relations with the rest of Somalia and the international community.
Somaliland is a self-declared independent state that claims to be the successor of the former British Somaliland protectorate, which united with Italian Somaliland in 1960 to form the Somali Republic. Somaliland declared its secession from Somalia in May 1991, following a conference of clan elders in Burao. Somaliland has its own constitution, flag, currency, parliament, president, army and police. It has also held several democratic elections and established relative peace and stability within its territory. However, Somaliland has not been recognized by any other country or international organization as a sovereign state, and is considered by most as a de facto autonomous region of Somalia .
Puntland is an autonomous state that was established in August 1998, following a conference of clan elders in Garowe. Puntland claims to be part of a federal Somalia, but exercises self-governance over its territory. Puntland has its own constitution, flag, parliament, president, army and police. It has also held several elections, but with less transparency and legitimacy than Somaliland. Puntland has been involved in several disputes with Somaliland over the regions of Sool, Sanaag and Togdheer, which are claimed by both sides based on clan affiliation or historical boundaries. Puntland has also faced security challenges from al-Shabab, pirates and clan militias .
The International Intervention and the Battle of Mogadishu
The humanitarian crisis and the civil war in Somalia attracted the attention and the intervention of the international community, especially the United Nations (UN) and the United States (US). However, the intervention faced many challenges and controversies, and ended with a tragic failure in 1993.
In April 1992, the UN Security Council authorized a peacekeeping mission in Somalia, known as UNOSOM I, to monitor a cease-fire and deliver humanitarian aid. However, the mission was unable to secure access to many areas due to the hostility of the Somali militias. In December 1992, the US-led a military operation, known as Operation Restore Hope or UNITAF, to protect the relief workers and create a secure environment for humanitarian assistance. The operation involved about 37,000 troops from 24 countries, and was authorized by the UN under Chapter VII of its Charter .
In May 1993, the UN took over the command of the operation and renamed it UNOSOM II. The mission had a broader mandate to disarm the militias, restore law and order, and support political reconciliation. The US reduced its troops to about 4,000 and placed them under UN command. However, the mission faced increasing resistance from some warlords, especially Mohamed Farah Aideed, who saw it as a threat to their power. Aideed's militia attacked UN forces several times, killing dozens of peacekeepers .
In response, the UN authorized a manhunt for Aideed and his top lieutenants. The US deployed an elite force, known as Task Force Ranger, to capture Aideed. On October 3, 1993, Task Force Ranger launched a raid on a building in Mogadishu where Aideed's associates were meeting. The raid was successful in capturing some of Aideed's men, but it turned into a disaster when two US Black Hawk helicopters were shot down by rocket-propelled grenades. A fierce battle ensued between Task Force Ranger and thousands of Somali fighters loyal to Aideed. The battle lasted for about 15 hours and resulted in the death of 18 US soldiers and hundreds of Somalis. The battle was later depicted in a book and a movie called Black Hawk Down .
The Battle of Mogadishu shocked the US public and the international community. It exposed the flaws and limitations of the intervention in Somalia. It also undermined the support and credibility of the UN mission. In March 1994, President Bill Clinton ordered the withdrawal of all US troops from Somalia by March 31. The UN followed suit and ended its mission in March 1995 .
The history of Somalia from 1960 to 1991 is a history of hopes and tragedies, of achievements and failures, of conflicts and interventions. It is a history that shaped the present and the future of Somalia and its people. It is also a history that offers valuable lessons for the international community and the world.
One of the lessons is that Somalia is not a homogeneous or monolithic entity, but a diverse and complex society that has different political and cultural aspirations. The attempts to impose a centralized or uniform system of governance on Somalia have often led to resistance and violence. A more inclusive and participatory approach that respects the autonomy and diversity of the Somali regions and clans might be more conducive to peace and stability.
Another lesson is that international intervention in Somalia has been a double-edged sword. On one hand, it has provided much-needed humanitarian assistance and security to millions of Somalis who suffered from famine and war. On the other hand, it has also provoked resentment and hostility from some Somalis who perceived it as an infringement on their sovereignty and dignity. A more balanced and respectful intervention that addresses the root causes of the Somali crisis and supports the Somali-led solutions might be more effective and sustainable.
The history of Somalia from 1960 to 1991 is not only a history of the past, but also a history of the present and the future. It is a history that still affects the lives and prospects of millions of Somalis today. It is also a history that still challenges the international community and the world to find better ways to deal with complex humanitarian emergencies and fragile states. b99f773239